In the Name of
Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
|Verse 23, Al- Showra (Counsel),"say:,
I do not ask of you a wage for this
(my mission), except love for the kinsfolk.''
Really, it was destined to love the prophet's kinsfolk as the wage for his
mission, and how enormous wage he paid for it during the continuous years of
hardship that pens can not write of its extremity. So much is certain that kinsfolk
(al qurba) is relationship of those of prophet's descendants (ahl al- bait) with him
(peace be upon), and these are narratives (riwayat) by Shi`ites and Sunnites about
the obligation (wujub) of loving and friendship (muwalat) to prophet's
The word al-qurba in the verse is not either relatives of the Prophet
(PBUH),(1) hence God Almighty said,`` neither prophet nor believers ask for
forgiveness of idolaters even if they are relations of prophet (PBUH)``. The
friendship to kinsmen that prophet (PBUH) asks as a wage for his mission, is
uttered in a specific way, that is, the speaker or asker is the prophet himself
(PBUH), then `(al)- qurba' are the absolute relatives of prophet (PBUH) since
prophet (PBUH) is the tongue of God's revelation then this wage for his mission
which is the friendship to the kinsmen of prophet was destined by God and put
on prophet's tongue as His spokesman. Thus, our respect for the prophet's
children is the respect for his kinsmen as it is recorded in Quran.
Nearness is gained in different ways, and addressing the beloved must be done
in such a good way that deserves him/her, and perhaps it is the reason for
granting titles and nicknames. Names can completely define their evidence and
they don't need to accompany with titles and nicknames unless the lover decides
to be at the neighborhood of the beloved in order to pay him/her due courtesy,
and this lead us to discover that we, with the best names and attributes call the
Almighty, and so is calling His prophets, chosens, saints and righteous servants.
We respect offspring's of God's messenger (PBUH) according to the above
mentioned verse of friendship (mawaddah) and adhering to prophet's word. So in
relation to the twelve infallible of the prophet's house we do not give them titles
by ourselves because we can not know them by ourselves to give them their true
and real title as they are deserved to, so in this case we follow what narrated from
the prophet (PBUH) and twelve Imams (AS) relating to the titles they had given
themselves, or ones that God and his prophet had given them. We, therefore find
amongst some titles, one like ``Amir al- Mu'minin'' that was forbidden giving it to
a man other than `Ali (AS), or having the name or the title of apostle of God
except granting it to the twelfth Imam Al- Hujjat al- Muntazar al- Mahdi , may
almighty God hasten his glad advent.
We know that titles are used either to praise or to reproach, like Al- Sayyid
and Al- Sharif that are used to praise someone, or `Ibn Batta' and `Anf al- Naqa,'
etc. are used to rebuke someone. But we, in this article, aim at the ones that are
used to praise others.
Every Muslim sect had been granting very good titles to the kinsmen of
prophet (PBUH) to praise and to pay homage to them as like as God and His
apostle had been doing to, but the kinds of this praise and homage are different
in times and places.
In other words, it is possible to say that these attributes that had been given
to the kinsmen of prophet (PBUH) weren't used to praise an ordinary man, but a
man whom this ordinary man was related to, so, we see it is possible that a man
may be hostile toward the kinsmen of prophet (PBUH) but is titled and addressed
by ``Sayyid'', because, hostility, in this regard, against someone doesn't damage
the love and expressing inclinations to this pure and blessed tree i.e. the kinsmen
of prophet (PBUH), and friendship is to whom a man has relation with, like the
asking of prophet (PBUH) for this friendship vis-a-vis his mission.
Here, we devise two terms related to ``titles'': attributive title, and venerating
title. The former is used to show the relationship of a man or woman to a certain
tribe or sect as: Qurashi, Imami, 'Arefi, Zaidi, Hussaini, etc. The latter such as
`Sayyid' that was granted to 'Al-Hemyari by Imam al-Sadiq (AS) has been used
to show respect or veneration to certain individuals. Here we don't have dealing
with attributive titles and they are covered in books called the books of
distinguished men and kinship's (Kutub al-rijal wa'l-ansab). But to concern the
venerating titles granted to those who are connected to prophet's house, we see
that prophet's kinsfolk don't give these titles to themselves, also we see no use of
them either in ancient times(2) or on the seals of recent `Sayyids' of shi`i
authorities(3), but it is not a generalization especially in recent eras in Iran,
because we see that some authors and scribers initiate their name by the title
Sayyid not to magnify themselves but to gain dignity and honor to be allied to
the pure and blessed tree- the kinsfolk of prophet (PBUH), and then the word
`sayyid' became a part of their name not a especial title for them.
We know that each meaning and use of the word `Sayyid' is common to
denote greatness and superiority in different ways, and the greatness of `Sayyid' is
different according to whom it is attributed as `Sayyid al- 'abrar' who is the best
of the pious and `Sayyid al- 'ashrar' who is the worst of the wicked; God, in this
regard said,`and they shall say O, our Lord, we obeyed our chiefs and great ones
and they led us astray from the way'
Grammarians say that in Arabic, `fai`il' that is used for description, has the
same rhythm as `layyin'. So, most of the time the word `Sayyid' is used because of
its descriptive sense, for its original function is its adjectival sense, and less is
used as noun like `Muhammad', `Ali and etc(5)., which they, originally, are
adjectives. This word had been used to praise some sultans like `Salah al- din' and
Al- Sayyid in the Book and Tradition:
God almighty said,``verifying a Word from Allah, and honorable and chaste
Tabresi, In this concern, after narrating the ancients of exegetist's words, said,
`... all meanings (of `Sayyid') refer to a unique origin, and, that is, he (a man) is
(deserved) to be the possessor of himself to manage whom (his wife) that is
obliged to obey him (his husband).(8)
And God said in xII, 25,` ... and they met her husband at the door...'
AYAT . As the translation of the verse shows, the word
`Sayyid' refers to her husband because he is the possessor of her and her affairs.
And the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, `I am the sayyid of Adam's children and `Ali
is the Sayyid of 'Arab'.(9)
Afandi(10), of scholars of 12th century said, The word ``Sayyid'' is applied to
whom related to Hashim b. `Abd Manaf the great grandfather of the Holy
Prophet (PBUH) and in our time most of those who keeps this relationship of
supremacy, are descendants of `Ali Ibn- Abitalib (AS).
It was said in Al- Qamus al- Islami(11), 'Al- Sayyid is of titles of homage that
the greatest of distinguished persons are addressed by, its feminine is `sayyida(t)'
and its plural form is `sadat', and `sayyid' is of titles that addresses those ailed to
the house of Prophet (PBUH) and, especially, its masculine and feminine form are
applied to men or women offspring's of `Ali (AS) and Fatima (AS), for instance,
of women's names like, Al- Sayyida Zainab and Al- Sayyida Nafisa.
What is important to us is the time of beginning application of the title
`Sayyid' to the honorable sadat.
No one except Sheikh Al- 'Aqabozorg Tehrani explicitly said, it is clear that
using the word ``Sayyid'' gradually was allocated to Bani Hashim in seventh
century(12) and we will argue about it later.
Basis for `Siyada' During Ignorance (Jahiliyya).
Jahiz in Sharayi` al- Maru'a said,(13) `... and Arabs basis for `Siyada' are
different things: Mudar sect gave this title to one who had the power of
judgment. Rabi`a sect did it to one who fed people, Yemen Arabs knew `Siyada' in
kinship. And Arabs of jahiliyya applied the title of `Siyada' to one who had seven
qualifications: generosity, greatness, patience, forbearance, humility, expression,
and becoming Muslim.
The First Man of Prophet's Fathers Who had Been Entitled
With `Al- Sayyid':
This man was Hashim ibn `Abd Manaf from whom his son `Abd al- Muttalib
narrated:` I am the son of Hashim and I am the sen of Sayyid of Batha'.'(14) And
`Abd Allah ibn- `Abd al- Muttalib the father of the Holy prophet (PBUH): ` I am
`Abd Allah ibn `Abd al- Muttalib ibn- Hashim ibn `Abd Manaf, Sayyid of the
nobles and the host of guests, of Sadat of the shrine.(15)
Application of `Al- Sayyid' to the prophet and his children (AS).
From the Holy prophet (PBUH) about brotherhood between `Al- Muhajirun'
and `al- Ansar' it was narrated that he (PBUH) said,`I am `al- Sayyid' who is
responsible.....'.(16) And, as well, it was applied to Imam Hassan and Imam Hussein
(AS) and Imam al- Muntazar may God hasten his glad advent.(17)
Historical Excursion of the word `Al- Sayyid':
We did not find using this word out of its granting to the prophet's family
('Ahl al- Bayt) (AS),(18) except in some rare cases; of them the prophet's saying
about 'Ovais al- Qarani:`the sayyid of the followers, 'Ovais al- Qarani is the monk
of this community.(19)
And `Aba Muhammad Talhat ibn- Masrif (died in 112 AH) in the reign of
Hisham ibn- `Abd al- Malik who was entitled with `Sayyid al- Qurra'. (superior to
those who read Quran correctly).(20)
During centuries the meaning of the word `sayyid' changed and reached to its
idiomatic phase and related to this, Tha`alibi (died in 429 AH) said about Al-
sharif al- Razi:`...when he was 20 and over, he had been composing poems, and
after that he became the most famous innovator of his time and the greatest of
`Sadat' of 'Araq (Iraq)... and he was of the superior poets of al- Talibiyyin.(21)
Najashi (died in 450 AH) in his Rijal(22) said:` Al- Hassan b. Ahmad b. al-
Qasim b. Muhammad b. `Ali b. 'Abi Talib (AS) noble and representative of 'Abu
Muhammad is the `Sayyid of this tribe.'
Al- Sharif al- Murtada `Alam al- Huda (died in 436 AH) in answering to the
most questions sent to him had been addressed `Al- Sayyid' as we refer to the
book `Rasa'il al- Sharif al- Murtada' published in four volumes.
According to above mentioned evidence we become more certain that this
word gradually received its idiomatic meaning as we narrated some of them from
manuscripts like in the end of a copy from `Al- Amali of Al- Sayyid al- Murtada a
declaration to 'Ahmad b. `Ali b. Qudama who wrote it to one of `Alavites sadat
in this way:`...read `Ali ... a reading along with understanding... the noble and
honored al- Sayyid 'Abu Talib Hamzat b. `Ali b. al- Hussein al `Alavi al- Halabi,
and the date of this reading is between 457 and 458, and it had been written by
Ibn Qudama in Sha`ban 484 AH.(23)
In a copy of Al- Tibyan compiled by Al- Shaikh al- Ta'ifa al- Tusi (460) of his
time, on its first page he wrote that Al- Shaikh `Abu al- Wafa' `Abd al- Jabbar b.
`Abd Allah al- Muqri' al- Razi had read the book at his presence, and `Abu al-
Wafa' wrote that his son 'Abu al- Qasim `Ali had read the same book at his
presence and Al- Sayyid 'Abu al- Fadl Da'i b. `Ali b. al- Hussein al- Hussaini
listened to his reading in the end of Jumadi al 'ula, 44 AH.(24)
If we go through the next centuries, we see that the word gained its idiomatic
meaning. For example, we see that Al- Shaikh Muntajab al- Din al- Razi (died
after 585) compiled his `Al- Fihrist' by the command of Al- Sayyid `Aziz al- Din
Yahya the representative of Al- Talibiyyin in 'Araq (Iraq).(25)
In a license written by Al- Hassan b. al- Hussein b. `Ali al- Duristi to 'Abi
Jaffar Muhammad b. 'Abi Talib b. Hassan al- Hussaini al- 'Abi in safar 588, he
said:`...the commander, the great Sayyid...the noble of Sayyids 'Abu Jaffar
Muhammad b. 'Abi Talib b. al- Hassan al- Hussaini al- 'Abi may God lengthen
So, to near the beginning of the seventh century AH we find that the word
Sayyid had naturally been granting to the pure children of the Holy Prophet
(PBUH); and among great treasures of manuscripts in seventh century AH we
found a license from al- Shaikh Ahmad b. Muhammad al- Musili to al- Sayyid
Fakhr al- Din Razi `Ali b. Ahmad b. 'Abi Hashim al `Alawi al- Hussaini in
Jumadi al- 'Ula 7, 668 says:`...the very unique great Sayyid Fakhr al- Din al- Razi
read this (book) in my presence...,(27) and in a license written by the pupil of Ibn
Hamza Salim b. Badran al- Mazini to the scholar Nasir al-Din al- Tusi in his
handwriting said:`I permitted him to narrate all these traditions from the great
sayyid, pure, pious, God- fearing, unique scientist `Aziz al- Din Ibn al- Makarim
Hamzat b. `Ali b. Zuhrat al- Hussaini.(28)
Using this word with this idiomatic meaning continued in different eras, and
giving example is Sufficient and again we refer to the words of Al- `Allamma al-
Tehrani where he said:... and from evidence using the word `sayyid' little by litte
had especially been used to be granted to Bani Hashim.(29)
As Ibn Faris(30) said Al Sharaf means superiority and Al- Sharif means a
It was narrated from Al- Suyuti in 'Al- zainabiyya' thesis:(31)`In Early Islamic
Era, the name Al- sharif had been applied to everyone of Ahl al- Bayt, either he
was Hassani or Hussaini or `Alavi, of children of Muhammad b. al- Hanafiyya, or
of children of `Ali b. 'Abi Talib, or of Ja`far or `Aqil or Al- `Abbas' children. And
when Fatimiyyun became caliphs of Egypt granting the noun Al- sharif was
limited only to Al- Hassan and Al- Hussain's children, and this continued so far
Samirra'i said:(33)`...in Abbassid and Ottoman eras, wherever the post of
superiors was established, they called Al- Sayyid, Al- sharif.
And people in every city used specific ways to give names and titles to others.
In Iraq the word ``Sayyid'' granted to each `Alavite, In Hijaz(34) they called every
sayyid, al- sharif, but in Maghrib al- `Arabi the word `al- sharif' was applied to
every Hassani and the word `al- sayyid' to every Hussaini.
So, what Al- Hafiz Ibn Hajar said in his book `Alqab' that in Baghdad `al-
sharif' was a title granted to every `Abbassid, and in Egypt a title granted to every
`Alavite, is not correct.(35) Because he is of scholars of the 9th century AH but the
title `al- sharif' was granted to `Ali al- sharif al- Murtada al- Musavi (who wasn't 'Abbassi,
and died in 436, that is he lived in the 5th century not 9th)
and he was the leader of Baghdad, Unless it is said that Ibn Hajar especially
meant the era of time by saying the abovementioned matter.
Our teacher Al- Tehrani had said in Tabaqat 'A`lam al- Shi`a:(36)...till the 6th
century the word `al- sharif' most of the time had been applied to Hashimites,
and from that time, in Iran and Iraq and Khalij we see that people used the word
`al- sayyid' or the term `al- sayyid al- sharif'. but applying the word `al-sharif' to
one whose mother was Hashmiyya was a newer term from the 9th century on.
My teacher al- Mamaqani told me that now the word `al-sharif' is applied to
sayyids in the south of Africa like Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Zangbar, and in
these places its plural form is `shurafa'.
We didn't find applying this title to non sayyids except one probable example
in `Rijal' compiled by Najashi(37) when said:al- sharif Abu Muhammad al- Hassan
b. Hamzat al- Tabari, of narrators from Ibn Batta, and he was probably from
Jawhari said:(38) Al-Amir commander, e.g. he ordered someone, 'amura he
became a commander..., al-imara succession, al-ta'mir superintendence of
What will be obtained from historical researches(39) is that this title was being
applied to entitle the prophet's kinsfolk from 11th to 13th century AH either by
itself or along with the word `sayyid', and probably as an idiom in 10th and 14th
century AH, however it is not used idiomatically now but literally.
We are not certain that this title like its two counterparts: al-sayyid and al-sharif
has been granted to the prophet's kinsmen without accompaning with its
oral and written cognates. So it may be said that 'amir' is not applied to sayyids
except it is accompanied with its cognates of lineage or general titles like al-
`Alavi and al- Hussaini, etc, or along with the word al-sayyid or al-sharif or both
of them as in: zain al- Din `Ali b. Muhammad al-Jurjani who was entitled with:
Al-'Amir al-sayyid al-sharif al-`Allama.(40)
It is the abbreviated form of 'Amir(41) and usually comes before the
name of a person.(42) and sometimes comes with `al-sayyid' like in:`Al-sayyid Mir
'Abu al-Fath b. Mir Makhdum al-Hussaini al-Gurgani (died in 976);(43)and al-
sayyid Mir `Ali b. Shahab al- Hamadani the famous Gnostic.(44)
It was said this word has been used to be granted to the children of the Holy
Prophet (PBUH) so far in India.(45)
It is possible that using the word 'Amir to sayyid is related to the
situation of time and geography.The word Mirza is used to a child if his father is
alive and this word is the abbreviated form of Amirzade(46) the son of Amir as
Aqa and Agazade in Farsi.
It is not proved that this title has been granted to sayyids in any times or
periods but we see examples like: Al- sayyid Mirza 'Abu Talib b. 'Abi al- Qasim
al- Musavi al- Zanjani (died in 1329 AH) who was of sadat entitled with such a
term; and Mirza 'Abu al- Qasim Najm al- Din al- Naraqi who was not of sadat,
and both of them compiled books related to Rijal.(47)
This pure tree (the kinsfolk of the Holy prophet) (PBUH) has been described
with different words and titles more than what we discussed here like:'Aal al-
Bayt, 'Aal Ahmad, 'Aal Hamim, 'Aal al-Rasul, 'Aal Yasin, 'Aal Muhammad, 'Ahl
al- Bayt, Dhurriyyat al-Rasul and etc. But using to give the title like al- Jalil, al-
Hasib and al- Nasib are common in writing licenses and these convey the
meaning of praise not title, and it is common to be applied to the prophet's
kinsfolk or others.
1 -Like xvi, 90 `surely God bids to justice and good- doing and giving to kinsmen', and
like Lx, 8, etc.
2 -We saw using many of them in manuscripts that just we refer to some of them: in
one of the licenses written by one of the Musavi Sayyids granted this title to the addressee
either in his signature he himself didn't write this title in the beginning of his name: this
license is found in the end of a manuscript of Al- Wafi compiled by Al- Faiz al- Kashani in
Khansar library, coded 286, and this is the text:
3 -like inlaid seal of Al- sayyid Muhsen al- Tabatabai al- Hakim, and Al- Sayyid
Abulqasim al- Musawi al- Khu'i.
4 -The confederates (Al- Ahzab).
5 -Of those who called `Sayyid': Sayyid b. `obaid b. Bakhtari in 'Amali Al- Shaikh al-
Mufid p. 171; Rijal Al-Shaikh al- Tusi, chapter AYAT , coded 22. And Sayyid b. `isa,
teacher of 'Abi Sa`id al-'ashj in Tawdih al- Mushtabah 5/ 250, 251.
6 -Al- Qamus al- Islami 3, 586; and Al- Tarshih al- Thalith Min Muqaddamat Kashf al-
7 -The House of Imran ('Ale- Imran), 39.
8 -Majma' al- Bayan, Dar al- Ma`rifa, Beirut, 1,2/ v43.
9 -Al- Qaba'il Wa'l Buyutat al- Hashimiyya p. 7 from Kanz al- `Ommal 1/ 400, from
Bihar 4/ 198, chapter 3, tradition 2 from `A'isha.
10 -In Riyad al- `Ulama', 7/ 133.
11 -Al Qamus al- Islami, Ahmad `Atiyyatallah, 3/ 585.
12 - See Al- Anwar al- Sati'a (Tabaqat 'A`lam al- Shi`a) p.102, and Al- Nabis of scholars
of the fifth century AH, p.90.
Al- `Allama al- Tehrani said after this: `... alongside of `Al- Sayyid', the word 'Al- Shaikh'
is applied to those who are not sayyid, and this word is an equivalent of a Farsi word like
`Pir' that is applied by Sufis. This is not true, because `Al- Shaikh' is old Arabic word meant
`Al- Ra'is' that had been granted to 'Al- ru'asa'', and is not the Farsi equivalent of `Pir'.
'Abudhar (AR)pronounced the word `Al- Shaikh' ... as it was narrated in Bihar and Safina;
see Mu`jam Al- Rumuz wa'l Isharat, p206 and Mustadrak al- Mu`jam - manuscript. And it
was cammon to use the word `Al- Shaikh' along side of `Al- Sayyid', and now in Iran and
most Arab countries the word `Al- Shaikh' is used with equal meaning as `Al- Sayyid'.
13 - As Baghdadi narrated in `Khazanat al- 'Adab, 3/90-91, (1/476 from previous
edition), narrated to explain this example:` AYAT'; and see from the same
author: Mu`jam Maqaiis al- Lugha, 1,137, and Al-Kitab from Sibuwaih, 1/116.
14 - The General Encyclopedia of Shi`ites, 10/573.
15 - Bihar al-Anwar, 15/317, chapter 3, tradition 37.
16 - Nahj al-Iman, chapter 23, about brotherhood- a manuscript.
17 - As in Bihar al- 'Anwar, 51/22, 66/43 and other evidence like `Ghibah' by al- Shaikh
18 - Of changed forms the word `Sayyid' which are not very common, but are found in
languages, are words like: `al- Hashimi', `Bani Hashim', `Aal al- Rasui` etc. as in a tradition:
`Verily the Apostle of God (PBUH) was noble to Bani Hashim' Jawahir al- `Iqdain, 2/310.
Sharif al- Murtada said in 'Amali 1/62 about 'Abi Firas who was Shi`a and had tendency
tward Bani Hashim; and in pp 66-67 he repeated this subject in this way:`... and what
denotes his Shi`ism and having tendency toward Bani Hashim'.
And this is the reason that the title sayyid was not a specific one only for `Sayyids' till the
time of Al- Sharif al- Murtada.
And in his Rasa'il, 1/300, Al- Sharif al- Murtada answered the question 55 when he was
asked, `Is it necessary for a believer of Arab to marry a woman of `Alavi and Hashimi?' and
he answered: `If he is not from an ill- famed tribe there is no impediment for him to marry
19 - Taj al- `Arus, 9/306 under `Qarana'. Tanqih al- Maqal, 1/156.
20 - Al- Qamus al-Islami, Ahmad `Atiyyatallah, 3/588.
21 - Bustani Encyclopedia, 10/458; and see 'Alghadir, 4/202 with a little difference.
22 - Rajal al- Najashi p.65,, coded 152, published by the community of teachers, and pp.
183-184 coded 150 published in Beirut.
23 - And a copy available in Barikbin library, Qazvin.
24 - A copy is available in general library of al- Sayyid al- Mar`ashi in Qum, coded 83.
25 - See: Al- Dhari`a Ila Tasanif al- Shi`a, 16/396.
26 -This license written on the first page of `Al- Khilaf' compiled by Al- Shaikh al- Tusi
(460)which is of the most important manuscripts, available in the library of Imamzada Hilal,
in Aran (near Kashan), coded 106.
27 -In `Al- Khilaf compiled by Al- Shaikh al- Tusi. See Al- Dhari`a 7/235- 236, coded
1137, and 1/ 142- 143, coded 673.
28 - From Ghunyat al- Nuzu` Ila `Ilmayil 'Usul wa'l Furu`, p. 23, from the copy available
in the library of Majlis, coded 86321, the year of writing 614 AH and the date of writing the
text of license 629 AH.
And see Al- Dhari`a 16/69 because he (Al- Shaikh al- Tehrani) saw the manuscript.
29 -see Al- Anwar al sati`a (Tabaqat 'A`lam al- Shi`a) P. 102, and Al- Nabis fi 'A`lam al-Qarn al- Khamis, P. 90.
30 -In Ma`alim al- Ulama' pp. 146, 150.
31 -As stated in Qaba'il wa'l Boyutat al- Hashimiyya, pp. 7-8.
32 -Near to this view is in 'Al-Kalamo Yajurr al- Kalam compiled by Al- Zanjani, 1/ 95
narrated from Al- Rihlat al- Hijaziyya compiled by `Abbas Hilmi viceroy of Egypt and it is
author's travel book relating to his voyage to honorable Mecca.
33 -Al- Qaba'il wa'l Boyutat al- Hashimiyya in 'Araq, p. 7-8.
34 -My teacher al- Mamaqani the compiler of Mu`jam Al- Rumuz wa'l Isharat said: If
the word Hijaz was the common name for Mecca and Medina and their nearby places, what
was in the text would be correct, otherwise we couldn't find the word `sharif' in Al-Qatif
and Al-'Ahsa', and other eastern regions of Arabian peninsula, but they were entitled with
35 -Al-Qaba'il wa'l Boyu!tat al-Hashimiyya in Iraq, pp. 7-8.
36 -Al-Na bis Fi'l Qarn al-Kha mis (Tabaqa t 'A`la m al- Shi'a). p.91 at the margin.
37 -Rijal al-Najashi , 1/ 334, coded 361, published in Beirut.
38 -Al- Siha h, 2/ 581-582 under amara; and see Lisa n al- `Arab, 1/ 206- 207, and Al-
Niha ya compiled by Ibn 'Athi r, 1/ 66- 67, etc.
39 -See Al-Dhari`a, 1/ 140,coded 654 the license of al-Amir 'Abu al-Wali al-Hussaini
al-Shiraziin 1005 AH; Salafat al-`Asr pp. 10, 490; and Al-Dhari`a, 10/ 96, coded 191.
40 -Riad al-`Ulama', 7/ 135- 136.
41 -This title was applied during the era of Taimu rites and safawi tes to some honored
Sayyids: Mir Miran. (the commander of commanders), Mu'in Dictionary, 4/ 4489, under
42 -Mu'in Dictionary, 4/ 4488, under `Mi r'.
43 -Al-Dhari 'a, 4/ 277.
44 -Al-Kalamo yajurr al- Kalam, 1/ 93.
45 -Al-Kalamo yajurr al- Kalam, 1/ 93.
46 -Mu'in Dictionary 4/ 4491.
47 -Al-Dhari'a, 2/ 495.